In my research work, I often find it difficult to get datasets for X-ray CT for method validation, neither simulated and real data. Of course, there's the classic Shepp-Logan phantom, but in many cases it would save a lot of work to download datasets to test one's methods. As for my knowledge, there is no broad known repository. In the image processing community there are the classical Lena, Barbara pictures, but I am not aware of similar common testing grounds in the X-ray CT one. In many cases the final goal is to apply the developed methods to a particular application case, so datasets are available from a company or a hospital repository. However, I think it would be useful to have a "middle step" and test on simpler phantoms before getting to the real deal. Many applied mathematicians often stop at this middle step, since going further would be out of scope for them. I hope this collection will be useful to others.
Since 3D printing is quite easy and inexpensive nowadays (can be done even in public libraries often), I used a the free software Autodesk 123D to design some 3D printable prototypes for static and dynamic CT. I am here sharing both the ready-made STL file (ready to be printed) and the 123D-project file, in case someone wants to do some personal edits. Anything can be freely use, just please quote the author and the source.
If you are aware of other open data repositories for CT or would like to share suggestions, feel free to comment below. I will update this post and the shared repositories in the future (last update: Feb 22nd, 2016).
Static CT open data
[real data] Tomographic data of a walnut: open dataset from FIPS, authors are indicated at the webpage.
[real data] 3D printable simple phantom prototype: to test contrast agents, geometry preservation of reconstruction method, how different attenuation values are reconstructed. Please quote the author (Paola Elefante) and the link to this post as a source.
[real data] 3D printable blood vessels prototype: to test a realistic static geometry of blood vessels splitting in capillaries. Please quote the author (Paola Elefante) and the link to this post as a source.
Dynamic CT open data
[real data] DirLab repository: a open data repository, mostly for image registration researchers.
[real data] 3D printable dynamic blood vessels prototype: to test a realistic dynamic simulation of blood or fluid flowing. In the featured picture you can spot an old version of this prototype. I made some major edits in the design, but I still did not test it. Please quote the author (Paola Elefante) and the link to this post as a source.
[simulated data] 2D dynamic "Y-phantom": a binary phantom where meaningful topological changes happen, good for interface detection methods (level-set, etc.).